Among The Ruins for the time being is now no longer a project I will be putting time in. I, along with a few other Catholics will be creating a CRx Catholic Magazine/Publication. It is still a work in progress. When it is up and running I will post the link to it here and on my twitter account. Stay tuned, and I thank all my readers.
The Framework of Society
Note: Over the last several months I have been immensely busy with my personal life. I am currently learning Full Stack Web Development and since WordPress allows for an HTML feature I figured it would be a good way to both practice my skills while also resurrecting the content on my blog. Stay tuned for so fresh OC.
Sorry for the lack of posts folks. I am currently getting a second degree and it has been taking up a lot of my time. I am also working on a few other things in my personal life. However, I do have a couple big posts I will be working on but since they are both research intensive they will take me some time to produce. So please be patient.
In the mean time I created a Tumblr to stimulate the appetite for the aesthetic. Give it a follow. I promise it wont disappoint.
Anyway, stay tuned for my upcoming posts.
With the recent strike against Syria by the Trump administration and the furthering pursuit of the aggressive NeoCon policy, many of the former “Trump Train” riders began to jump ship… or…er…train. After the strike against Syria I watched the Rectosphere, Twittersphere and Facebook blow up with backlash from all those who considered Trump “our guy”. This is understandable. After all, those who voted for Trump did so under the pretense that he would stop with this silly foreign policy and focus on “Making America Great Again.” Atlas, he has failed in that…. so far.
Now that the initial rage of this event has subsided, I’m going to make a claim that may ruffle some feathers. This is a good thing. Not in the sense that what he is doing is good or right… but it is good because this whole situation, whether it be Trump, Le Pen or another “rightest” leader, has bolstered a false hope among those of us who claim to be Traditionalists, Reactionaries, Monarchists, Counter- Revolutionaries, ect. It has lulled us back into a comfortable slumber. It has fooled some of us into the idea that democracy may just work, after we spent months, if not years railing against the failure of democratic and republican systems of governance. And even if we didn’t completely fall off into a slumber, what was it that we expected? Did we truly expect a hyper-capitalist to “save” a nation that only a return to Christ could foster? Did we so naively believe that Trump could march face first against a power so ingrained into the governments of the West and win from the top down?
Let us not find despair in this turn of events. Let this be a rattling of our cage and arise us from the comfort that we took in Trump and similar leaders. Brothers, we are counter-revolutionaries. Let us hold true to the principles and conviction that we have been espousing. Let us continue to fight against modernity and let us not forget why. Our war will not be won with votes, nor will it be won with arms. Nay, this is a culture war. It will be won in the family, in the community, in the pews. To truly “Make America Great Again” we must make it great for the first time. Let this nation be converted and let us crown Christ as the King. Let Europa be reclaimed by the sovereignty of our Lord. Let us not put false hope in charlatans and demagogues. Our war is a war of the spirit and what is won there will manifest itself here. We my brothers are the torchbearers and it is up to us to live and cultivate the life we wish to see flourish. We will only forge anew through suffering, penance, piety and faith. Be strong. Be courageous. Do not be deceived. Do not despair. We have a choice upon awakening from the lies of modernity. We either chose despair and nihilism like the weak, or we become ever stronger. We must become guardians. We must becomes those that reflect the light of truth, beauty and goodness.
“All that is gold does not glitter, Not all those who wander are lost; The old that is strong does not wither, Deep roots are not reached by the frost. From the ashes a fire shall be woken, A light from the shadows shall spring; Renewed shall be blade that was broken, The crownless again shall be king.” -Tolkien
Side note: Back in December of 2015 Mark Citadel wrote a prediction that Trump would come close to winning and lose. In turn this would cause more people to turn their gaze from democratic modernity and toward a Monarchist or Reactionary stance. As we know now Mark’s predication was incorrect. But it may have only been incorrect on the timing. I think if Trump continues to take the same path most politicians have been taking we may see more people awaken. I believe we have an opportunity in this to bring more people onto our side. Let us see the light in all things and continue our fight of restoring Europe and its offspring’s to the light of Christ, and in turn the world.
Deo duce, ferro comitante!
An absolutely fantastic article by Mark Citadel on the pro-choice right.
It may just be a ramble but Testis put into words many of the thoughts that have come into my head over the last year or so. It is a refreshing read and it is also a good reflection because I know I am guilty of a few of the things. Give this a read and reflect on it. Well done sir!
“Let the boy prove himself a true knight and win his spurs.”— Edward III on his son “the Black Prince,” 16 years old, Battle of Crécy
This will be a multi-part essay on the philosophical foundations for the modern world with regards to Hobbes and Locke. Much of the material will be drawn from Christoper Ferrara’s book Liberty: The God That Failed. This essay can be said to be a brief summary of his work. I also highly recommend the book if such topics interest you and you wish to dive into them deeper.
For us to comprehend the modern ideology so ingrained in the thought of today we must first understand the foundations that it is laid upon. Although we could carry this analysis back to the rise of Mechanical Philosophy of Descartes and the Cartesian Revolution we will begin at a later point in history that built upon these streams of thought. All we will say about Descartes is that he opened the door to the absurd concept of certainty in radical uncertainty.
Where we will begin is with the ushering in of the concept of modern Liberty which was built upon the philosophy of both Hobbes and Locke. In the prior age, the foundations of understanding were built upon the orderly hierarchical cosmos of divinely appointed natures or substances ordered to a living God, which had its pinnacle in the summum bonum (highest good) of man. This worldview requires a society to be founded under the Christian Commonwealth (or Kingdom) whose entirety of laws and ordering are set for the purpose of directing man to his revealed eternal destiny. All of this having its bedrock in the Greco-Catholic synthesis with its understanding revolving around Aristotelian hylomorphism of the unity of body and soul in one human person whose indivisible whole was the very basis of both political and ethical life in the above mentioned system. The Aristotelian understanding of substance and its incorporation into the Christian theology via Thomistic thought.
The dawn of Liberty in its modern application obviously could not be built upon such a worldview. Both Hobbes and Locke, who ushered in the new system of Liberty, did nothing short of carry out a full scale attack on Substance Theory and the Greco-Catholic synthesis. They rejected the concept that man was able to apprehend the world as it really is through the senses, and even went so far as to assault human identity as it was previously understood. They carried out this assault using the “mechanical philosophy” of Descartes. At its core being nothing more then a Cartesian division of man into material and spiritual parts, which removed the spiritual from the realm of politics and ethics.
Hobbes, in his book Leviathan lashes out against the Aristotelian-Thomistic system. He claims that the only thing man can come to know is the names he gives to the ideas that arise in his mechanical brain upon receiving sensory input from the world. Furthermore, he claims that man cannot confirm that these ideas stem from a fixed or universal reality, not even to what he calls man. He states, “Reason, in this sense, is nothing but Reckoning of the consequences of general names agreed upon, for the marking and signifying of our thoughts…”. Hobbes also attacks the concept of an immaterial soul and denied the existence of a spiritual realm.
…mocking “the Latins” who defined God as a “Spirit Incorporeal, and then confess their definition to be unintelligible: or if they give him such a title, it is not dogmatically, with intention to make the Divine Nature understood; but Piously, to honour him with attributes, of significations, as remote as they can from the grossness of Bodies visible.”
-Liberty: The God That Failed
Hobbes even makes the assertion that the Holy Spirit is not a spirit, claiming it is nothing more then “the voice of God in a dream.” Utter heresy.
Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding continues this assault on the existence of universal substances and the reality of the spiritual realm. Unlike Hobbes, however, Locke does not carry out his assault so directly but does so through skepticism. This skepticism aligns with the Cartesian method of the only certainty being radical uncertainty. As Ferrara puts it,
Skeptical of everything but his own skepticism.
Locke was not willing to conceive that questioning the authority of our senses leads to the undermined belief in the existence of God. Classical Philosophy “supposes, without examining it, the validity of Knowledge,” (Epistemology, Catholic Encyclopedia) which begets the theological claim that a loving God would not create man in His image only to give him senses that deceive him. This can be witnessed in the Greek philosophies and how they came to such fundamental understandings through reason alone, by their senses.
The seeds Locke planted lead to the undermining of Church Authority and created the modern notion that their is no absolute truth, which ironically is claimed absolutely. Locke’s philosophy claims that man’s mind is a blank slate when he is born and can only collect ideas about the world through the use of his senses. Therefore, knowledge for Locke (and Hobbes) as he states in his Essay, “hath no other immediate object but its own ideas…. and is only conversant about them.” Locke claimed that one cannot even postulate a human nature or substance with any certainty. We can see the reverberating effects of such an ideology in the modern world with the rise of such things as transgenderism. Furthermore, Locke even denies that the “self” is body-soul unity. Claiming that, “consciousness alone unites actions into the same person… Self depends on consciousness, not on substance.” For Locke a person is nothing more then a stream of consciousness, not the soul of Christian teaching. Ferrara in his book Liberty: The God That Failed, drawing from Fabro’s, God in Exile states,
Locke’s confused “conservative” application of the mechanical philosophy, which maintained “verbal assertions of the distinction between the material world and the spiritual,” was nonetheless “in face eliminating any such distinction in theoretical order and drawing the logical conclusion from his basic principle that certainty consists in the perception of the agreement or disagreement of ideas.”
As Fabro concludes: “The importance of Locke’s influence on the molding of modern materialism and atheism by now are surely quite clear, despite his most outspoken declarations in favor of spiritualism and Christianity….”
This notion of reality espoused by Locke and Hobbes becomes the new epistemological foundation for Liberty. In summary it states that man is only the name assigned to a collection of perceptible attributes. It rejects that man is a substance of divinely created unity of body and soul with a fixed nature and his end in the summum bonum.
I will continue this essay with posts later down the road diving deeper into these topics.
“It is indeed better (as no one ever could deny) that men should be led to worship God by teaching, than that they should be driven to it by fear of punishment or pain; but it does not follow that because the former course produces the better men, therefore those who do not yield to it should be neglected. For many have found advantage (as we have proved, and are daily proving by actual experiment), in being first compelled by fear or pain, so that they might afterwards be influenced by teaching, or might follow out in act what they had already learned in word.” –Saint Augustine, Treatise on the Correction of the Donatists.
Side note: I can attest to this. It was fear that brought me back to the Church originally. Which in time has led to influence by teaching and love of Christ.